Peru Country Guide

The Peru Country Guide was produced by the Danish Institute for Human Rights (DIHR) and Socios Peru.

The Country Guide is a compilation of publicly available information from international institutions, local NGOs, governmental agencies, businesses, media and universities, among others. International and domestic sources are identified on the basis of their expertise and relevance to the Peruvian context, as well as their timeliness and impartiality.

The survey of publicly available, international sources was carried out by DIHR in 2014. The draft was updated and localized by Socios Peru with some interaction with local stakeholders, from January to March 2015. The Guide was then comprehensively updated in early 2016.

The completed Country Guide aims to provide a comprehensive overview, on the basis of the information available, of the ways in which companies do or may impact human rights in Peru. The current Country Guide is not meant as an end product, or a final determination of country conditions. It is intended to be the basis, and the beginning, of a process of dissemination, uptake and modification. DIHR and Socios Peru seek further engagement with local stakeholders, and intend to update the Country Guide on that basis.

Read the full Country Guide here

Read the full Country Guide here

News Feed

Peru/Brasil: CIMI apoia orgs. peruanas contra construção de estrada fronteiriça entre os países & que ameaça indígenas com madeireiros, garimpeiros e narcotráfico

30 May 2017 — “Em defesa dos povos indígenas isolados do Brasil e Peru contra a abertura da rodovia Puerto Esperanza”, 29 de maio de 2017 Comunicado e posicionamento do Conselho Indigenista Missionário (Cimi), em defesa da vida dos povos indígenas isolados e em apoio a AIDESEP (Asociación Interétnica de Desarollo de La Selva Peruana) e FENAMAD (Federación Nativa Del Río Madre de Dios y Afluentes), contra a construção da estrada Puerto Esperanza – Iñapari, na fronteira do Brasil (Acre) com o Peru (Madre de Dios). A estrada, caso construída, trará graves impactos socioambientais sobre os povos indígenas e seus territórios situados em ambos os lados da fronteira,...representa...ameaça para a sobrevivência física e cultural dos povos indígenas isolados (os mais vulneráveis) cujo traçado projetado corta seu território tradicional transnacional, ocupado de forma milenar, antes da constituição dos Estados Nacionais do Brasil e do Peru…[A]brirá o caminho para a depredação transfronteiriça por parte de madeireiros, garimpeiros e narcotraficantes,..contra a vida da floresta e dos povos que a habitam. É fundamental que, através de um convênio bilateral Brasil e Peru reconheçam e protejam os povos indígenas isolados e demarquem seus territórios transfronteiriços, de modo urgente, dada a sua vulnerabilidade...Leia a nota na íntegra...O projeto..., mesmo com o posicionamento contrário das organizações indígenas, já foi aprovado pelo Congresso peruano e encontra-se nas mãos do Executivo para ser sancionado ou devolvido...Brasília, 26 de maio de 2017

Peru: Court documents in USA reveal human rights abuses linked to ‘illegal’ gold mining, and to former employee of NTR gold refinery

30 May 2017 — “Affidavit brings new insights into illegal corporate gold trading” …Illegal gold production is thought to constitute about 30% of Peru’s total gold production. This activity is where workers suffer the most horrendous health and safety conditions, often in conditions near to slavery. It is also where people suffer other forms of exploitation, such as prostitution. See for example, PSG article....The other end of the gold mining saga – and crucial to its control - is how illegal gold gets fed into the international gold market, in the process laundering it into ‘clean’ gold…Insight Crime has now published a report on a further pending legal case in the US judicial system of the District Court for the Southern District of Miami. Published in full is the 30-page affidavit of Colberd Almeida, special agent for Homeland Security, dated 10 March 2017. It concerns the case being brought against Juan P Granda, 'aka flecha', and two former colleagues. Granda, who has an Ecuadorian passport, worked for the Dallas-based metal refining company NTR (he has since been sacked) and, along with his two colleagues, is being charged with money laundering… The charge centres on the role that illegal gold and drugs play in this activity…The document is clear on the human rights dimensions of this illegal activity. It describes and cross references to the many accounts of abuse, prostitution and what is effectively slavery, the results of people's desperation and the total lack of any regulation (p3).  The environmental abuse, which the delegation has hopefully observed and been impressed by, damages livelihoods both for this and future generations, and opens the way to other forms of abuse…

Peru: Civil Society submits report to the UN Human Rights Council about extraterritorial obligations of Chinese companies

24 May 2017 — “The Peruvian State breaches its duty to protect the human rights of individuals and communities negatively impacted by Chinese mining investments in Peru” …Peru, as a target state of Chinese investments in mining, must prevent, investigate, punish and repair human rights harm related to these investment projects…In the labor field, several Chinese mining companies operating in Peru stand out because of their ignorance of fundamental rights at work. An example of this is the Chinese mining company Shougang, where low remunerative levels prevail, high levels of socio-labor conflict, as well as a long history of denunciations of bad anti-union practices and violation of the right of workers to collectively negotiate the improvement of their conditions of employment…In the case of the “Las Bambas”, mining project operated by MMG Limited, a subsidiary of China Minmetals, the State is frequently questioned because of its inability to safeguard the labor rights of mining project workers…Although several international human rights treaties to which Peru is a party recognize the right of all people to adequate housing and a healthy and protected environment, Perú fails to protect the rights against the, Chinese mining company Chinalco Peru SA, in charge of the mining project “Toromocho”, in which these rights are not being adequately guaranteed by the State…It has even been reported the case of a population of the city that was displaced that reported that personnel of Chinalco Peru S.A…The same that has also been object of repairs to pour acid waters in the lagoons of Huacrococha and Huascacocha… In the case of the “Rio Blanco” mining project by Xiamen Zijin Tongguan Investment Development Corporation, the project has been stopped by the opposition of the peasant communities of Ayabaca and Huancabamba Segunda and Cajas y Yana in Piura…

Response by HudBay Minerals

9 May 2017 — All areas of corporate responsibility are serious and important.  They deserve care in administration by a company and substance in discussion by everyone. No concern is served by hyperbole, innuendo or baseless accusations. We reject in the strongest possible terms claims about Hudbay made with regard to the individuals in the material at link... Hudbay Peru has an arrangement with the Peruvian national police whereby the police provide periodic security to the Constancia operation. These arrangements are common at mining projects in Peru and they are directly contemplated and permitted by Peruvian legislation. When police come to Constancia they receive training on site in the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights and Hudbay Peru’s expectation that the Principles are followed is made clear... Hudbay became aware of the April 22nd event as a result of subsequent social media and conventional media, largely the day after the detentions. Hudbay regards the video in question as lacking credibility, so we have no concern if or where it is shown. In summary, the existence of agreements between companies and police is not uncommon in Peru.  The events of April 22 were not directed or requested by Hudbay. 

Perú: Por documental sobre impactos de Hudbay Minerals, dos activistas son arrestados por supuesta violación de su estatus migratorio

9 May 2017 — La activista de MiningWatch Canadá, Jen Moore y el cineasta John Dougherty fueron objeto el viernes 21 de abril de una detención por autoridades migratorias del Perú. Ellos estaban presentando el documental “Flin Flon Flim Flam” en un evento público en el que se denuncia la situación de las comunidades en la mina La Constancia. Tras varias horas de interrogatorio, fueron liberados, pero serían imputados por desarrollar actividades no permitidas dentro de una visa de turista. MininWatch Canadá produjo un comunicado en el que señalan que se trata más bien de una forma de estigmatización contra quienes cuestionan abusos de derechos humanos de esa empresa. El Centro de Información sobre Empresas y Derechos Humanos invitó a Hudbay Minerals a responder; la respuesta está disponible en inglés.

Peru: Hudbay Minerals responds on arrest of two North American activists allegedly over their involvement in a documentary on impacts by its operations

9 May 2017 — Jen Moore and John Dougherty were arrested when presenting the documentary “Flin Flon Film Flam” in Cuzco; after interrogations, they were released and went back to Canada. NGOs expressed concern over this type of criminalization of defenders of the rights of nature. Business & Human Rights Resource Centre invited Hudbay Minerals to respond.  The response is available.

Gastkommentar: Handel und Investitionen müssen einen Beitrag zur Umsetzung der Menschenrechte leisten

8 May 2017 — "Menschenrechte in der Handel- und Investitionspolitik: Potentiale eines UN-Menschenrechtsabkomments zu transnationalen Konzernen und anderen Unternehmen", 20 Apr 2017 Die steigende Zahl bilateraler Investitions-und Freihandelsabkommen ist leider nicht durch eine entsprechende Berücksichtigung der menschenrechtlichen Konsequenzen begleitet worden... Die Sicherstellung eines umfassenden Menschenrechtsschutzes auch bei unternehmerischen Aktivitäten ist nur mit einer grundlegenden Reform der Handels- und Investitionspolitik zu bewirken... Der [zu verhandelnde] UN-Vertrag [über Wirtschaft und Menschenrechte] sollte [1] das Verhältnis von Handels- und Investmentabkommen und Menschenrechten durch eine spezielle Vorrangklausel regulieren. Zusätzliche Bestimmungen könnten die Staaten verpflichten, Menschenrechte in Allgemeine Ausnahmeklauseln in künftigen Handels- und Investmentabkommen aufzunehmen... [2] Staaten dazu verpflichten, menschenrechtliche Folgenabschätzungen durchzuführen und zwar vor, während und am Ende der Verhandlung [sowie der Umsetzung] von neuen Handels- und Investitionsschutzabkommen... [3] Verpflichtungen im Rahmen von Exportkredit- und Investitionskreditgarantien festschreiben...

Nuevo libro del Instituto Interamericano de Derechos Humanos explora la situación de empresas y derechos humanos en América Latina

6 May 2017 — Publicado en mayo, 2017 - Contenido: 1. Los desafíos de la globalización: reflexiones sobre la responsabilidad empresarial en materia de derechos humanos…Humberto Cantú Rivera (Universidad de Monterrey, México [editor y compilador]. 2. La promoción y el desarrollo de la protección de los derechos humanos frente a abusos empresariales en el sistema interamericano…[de] Nicolás Carrillo Santarelli (Universidad de La Sabana, Colombia) 3. El camino hacia un instrumento jurídicamente vinculante en el área de empresas y derechos humanos: ¿de la responsabilidad social de la empresa a la responsabilidad legal de la empresa por vulneraciones a los derechos humanos? [por] Carlos López (Comisión Internacional de Juristas) 4. Desarrollos internacionales recientes en el ámbito de los derechos humanos y las empresas…[de] Jernej Letnar Černič (Facultad de Estudios Gubernamentales y Europeos, Eslovenia) 5. La evolución de los sujetos de obligaciones del derecho internacional de los derechos humanos: del Estado al sector privado [por] José Thompson J. (Instituto Interamericano de Derechos Humanos) 6. Sentencias relevantes de derechos humanos y empresas en México [por] Jorge Toledo Sauri (Universidad Marista de Mérida, México) 7. Hacer negocios en un país en conflicto armado: Análisis de la relación reciente entre empresas y derechos humanos en Colombia [por] Mauricio Lazala y Amanda Romero (Business & Human Rights Resource Centre) 8. Derechos humanos y empresas en Brasil: ¿Avance por medio de la tragedia? [por] Ana Cláudia Ruy Cardia (Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo, Brasil) 9. Tratados de libre comercio y protección de derechos humanos: los casos de la explotación minera en El Salvador y Costa Rica [por] Stéphanie Gervais (Carleton University, Canadá) 10. El derecho a la identidad cultural de las nacionalidades indígenas y el paradigma del desarrollo modernizador de la política económica. Análisis de casos del Ecuador [por] Rodrigo Varela (Defensoría del Pueblo, Ecuador) 11. ¿Los Principios Rectores salvarán al Perú? La debida diligencia en las actividades extractivas de hidrocarburos en la Amazonía peruana [por] Gustavo Zambrano (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Perú) 12. La complicidad corporativa en las violaciones de derechos humanos: ¿una innovación en la justicia transicional de Argentina? [por] Gabriel Pereira (ANDHES, Argentina) y Leigh Payne (Universidad de Oxford) [Finalmente, el libro ofrece] Estudios temáticos 13. Buscando la reconciliación: Planes de Acción para lograr la transición [por] Paloma Muñoz Quick (Instituto Danés de Derechos Humanos, Dinamarca) 14. La experiencia y retos para las instituciones nacionales de derechos humanos latinoamericanas en torno a la protección de los derechos humanos frente a actividades empresariales. [por] Ramiro Rivadeneira Silva (Defensor del Pueblo, Ecuador) 15. El caso Chevron-Texaco y el aporte de los proyectos de convención sobre crímenes ecológicos y ecocidio a la responsabilidad penal de las empresas transnacionales [por] Kathia Martin-Chenut (CNRS, Francia) y Camila Perruso (Universidad de Sao Paulo, Brasil/Université Paris Descartes, Francia) 16. Industrias extractivas y pueblos indígenas: ¿sacrificando los derechos humanos en el altar del desarrollo? [por] Nick Middeldorp (Instituto Interamericano de Derechos Humanos) 17. Las personas defensoras de derechos humanos en el contexto del Plan Nacional de Acción Nacional sobre Empresas y Derechos Humanos en México [por] Fernanda Hopenhaym e Ivette González (PODER) 18. Los Principios Rectores sobre empresas y derechos humanos y la práctica legal en el arbitraje de inversión respecto del derecho internacional de los derechos humanos [por] Enrique Prieto Ríos (Universidad del Rosario, Colombia) y Álvaro Amaya (Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Colombia) 19. Debida diligencia en derechos humanos: Breves reflexiones [por] Humberto Cantú Rivera (Universidad de Monterrey, México) 20. La protección de los derechos humanos por medio de los mecanismos del derecho internacional privado [por] Santiago Ramírez Reyes (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Francia).

Pérou : La Cour Suprême met fin aux poursuites pour occupation illégale de terre contre Máxima Acuña qui s’opposait à la mine de Yanacocha

5 May 2017 — « Les autorités mettent un terme aux poursuites engagées contre la militante Máxima Acuña », 4 mai 2017 La décision de la Cour suprême du Pérou marquant la fin du procès intenté pour occupation illégale de terre contre la défenseure des droits humains Máxima Acuña Atalaya est une décision historique pour les défenseurs de l'environnement dans le pays… Après près de cinq ans de procédures liées aux accusations pénales infondées d'occupation illégale de terre, la Cour suprême a statué qu'aucune raison ne justifiait de poursuivre le procès sans fondement de Máxima Acuña Atalaya pour ce motif… Malgré l'absence de preuves depuis le début de la procédure lancée en 2011, le bureau du procureur général a décidé de poursuivre l'enquête pénale et de porter l'affaire devant les tribunaux. Cela a renforcé la stigmatisation de Máxima Acuña, présentée comme une criminelle dans le cadre d'une campagne de diffamation menée par des représentants de la compagnie minière Yanacocha, qui ont qualifié ses activités d'« occupation illégale »…    

Peru: Supreme Court rules in favour of Maxima Acuña’s family in land dispute with Newmont & Buenaventura’s Yanacocha mine

4 May 2017 — “Peruvian Supreme Court rules against Newmont” The Supreme Court of Peru has ruled in favour of a farmer that Newmont Mining…claimed was illegally occupying land it wanted to develop into the Conga mine…The U.S.-based gold miner appealed a decision by a lower court in 2014 that ruled in favour of potato farmer Máxima Acuña…Community opposition to the $5 billion copper and gold project forced Newmont to walk away from it last year…Acuña, who has been at the forefront of the opposition against the Conga project since it was first proposed in 2010, was awarded the Goldman Environmental Prize…Newmont decided to halt construction work at the project in November 2011, after violent protests led by governor Gregorio Santos forced the country's government to declare a state of emergency…Minera Yanacocha, one of the two local companies working with Newmont on the now mothballed project, tried hard to win local support, but was unable to secure it…"I feel happy and relieved that here in the capital [the court] has also provided justice," Acuña said after the Supreme Court decision. Reuters reported Acuña saying her home was destroyed during the mine's construction. Minera Yanacocha took her to court for "usurping" its land…