Brazil

The Brazil Country Guide was produced by the Danish Institute for Human Rights (DIHR) and the Ethos Institute.

The Country Guide is a compilation of publicly available information from international institutions, local NGOs, governmental agencies, businesses, media and universities, among others. International and domestic sources are identified on the basis of their expertise and relevance to the Brazilian context, as well as their timeliness and impartiality.

The survey of publicly available, international sources was carried out by DIHR in 2014. The draft was updated and localized by Ethos Institute with some interaction with local stakeholders, from January to March 2015. The Guide was then comprehensively updated in early 2016.

The completed Country Guide aims to provide a comprehensive overview, on the basis of the information available, of the ways in which companies do or may impact human rights in Brazil. The current Country Guide is not meant as an end product, or a final determination of country conditions. It is intended to be the basis, and the beginning, of a process of dissemination, uptake and modification. DIHR and Ethos Institute seek further engagement with local stakeholders, and intend to update the Country Guide on that basis.

 Read the full Country Guide here

Read the full Country Guide here

News Feed

Brasil: Escritora Clara Averbuck denuncia ser vítima de estupro de motorista de Uber, que diz ter banido motorista & repudia violência contra mulheres

4 Sep 2017 — "Escritora Clara Averbuck denuncia ser vítima de estupro de motorista de Uber-Empresa diz que motorista foi banido e que está à disposição para colaborar com as investigações.", 28 de agosto de 2017Ela disse que ainda está decidindo se vai prestar queixa na Delegacia da Mulher. "O mundo é um lugar horrível pra ser mulher", afirmou Clara, de 38 anos, que mora em São Paulo.  A empresa afirmou que o motorista foi banido. "...[V]irei estatística de novo. Queria chamar de 'tentativa de estupro', mas foi estupro mesmo...Tava bêbada...F*-se. Não vou incorrer no mesmo erro de quando eu era adolescente e me culpar. Fui violada de novo, violada porque sou mulher, violada porque estava vulnerável e mesmo que não estivesse poderia ter acontecido também...O nojento do motorista do Uber aproveitou meu estado, minha saia, minha calcinha pequena e enfiou um dedo imundo em mim, ainda pagando de que estava ajudando 'a bêbada'. Estou machucada mas estou em casa e medicada pra me acalmar", escreveu. A Uber disse em nota que "repudia qualquer tipo de violência contra mulheres. O motorista parceiro foi banido e estamos à disposição das autoridades competentes para colaborar com as investigações. Acreditamos na importância de combater, coibir e denunciar casos de assédio e violência contra a mulher."...

Brazil: Blogger and activist Clara Averbuck says she was sexually assaulted by an Uber; company says it blocked the driver & repudiates violence against women

4 Sep 2017 — "'The world is a horrible place to be a woman': Brazilian writer launches sexual violence campaign-Blogger and activist Clara Averbuck, who says she was sexually assaulted by an Uber driver in São Paulo, is using social media to take arms against abuse", 30 August 2017 ...[Clara Averbuck,]...Brazilian feminist writer and activist who says she was sexually assaulted by an Uber driver in São Paulo has launched an online campaign after writing and posting about the attack...[,] the latest in a series of digital protests that Brazilian feminists have used to denounce violence against women. "What happened is what happens to hundreds of thousands of Brazilian women," said Averbuck. "This is a daily situation, it's not just Uber."...[She]...has a bruise on her face as a result, she says, of the driver knocking her to the ground while sexually assaulting her. She has yet to decide if she will report the attack to police. She said that as an activist she has witnessed the shabby treatment of women reporting such attacks and is also afraid of possible reprisals...She said she was at a party in São Paulo on Sunday night when friends called an Uber to take her home. When he neared her apartment building, the driver pulled into a darkened street and attacked her. "The driver took advantage of my vulnerable state because I had been drinking," she said...In 2006, Brazil introduced legislation to combat violence against women: the Maria da Penha law...In 2013, more than 4,500 women were killed in Brazil...29% of Brazilian women had suffered verbal, physical or psychological violence in the past year, but 52% of them chose to keep quiet...A spokesman for Uber said that the driver had now been barred from driving for the company...[:]..."Uber repudiates any kind of violence against women. The partner driver was blocked and we are at the disposal of the competent authorities to collaborate with the investigations,"... [It refers to Facebook]

Cereal, drinks companies often overlook risk of forced labor in sugarcane: study

31 Aug 2017 — Food and beverage companies face the risk of forced labor in countries where they obtain sugarcane but most fall short in efforts to tackle the problem that threatens millions of workers, according to a study [by KnowTheChain (KTC)]...Sugarcane...can be found in a list of household foods and beverages...and is often harvested by rural migrant workers with machetes who work long hours for low wages in hazardous conditions... The companies studied were Coca-Cola Co., Fomento Economico Mexicano S.A.B de C.V (FEMSA), Monster Beverage Corp., PepsiCo Inc., The Hershey Co., Mondelēz International Inc., Nestlé S.A., Archer Daniels Midland Co., Associated British Foods plc plc (ABF) and Wilmar International Ltd. PepsiCo, Coca-Cola, Nestlé and ABF were the only four companies to undertake forced labor risk assessments of sugarcane supply chains in specific countries, the study said.

KnowTheChain case study: How food and beverage companies tackle forced labour risks in sugar supply chains

29 Aug 2017 — This case study assesses how a sample of 10 chocolate and confectionary manufacturers, beverage companies, and sugar producers address forced labour risks in their sugarcane supply chains. The study follows KnowTheChain’s first food and beverage benchmark, which found a lack of transparency and adequate action to address forced labor in commodity supply chains such as sugarcane. Findings include:  Only a small group of companies have assessed risks and set targets to eradicate forced labor in their supply chains, and all companies in the study need to improve. Workers have few ways to air grievances and no company was able to provide a concrete example of remedy provided to workers when wronged. All companies should take concrete follow-up steps at the country level. However, we found steps taken at that level are limited. PepsiCo, Coca-Cola, Nestlé, and ABF are the only companies making efforts to understand and assess forced labour risks in their sugarcane supply chains at the country level.  All companies disclose where at least some parts of their sugarcane supply chains are located. Coca-Cola discloses a map that highlights all sourcing countries for its key commodities. However, the company did not follow through on its commitment from 2013 to disclose the names of all its direct sugarcane suppliers within three years. Wilmar is the only company that discloses a list with names and addresses of its sugar suppliers. Additional background on the case study can be found here. 

Brazil: Canadian companies knew about Amazon reserve extinction before official announcement; civil society didn’t know about it & fears conflicts with indigenous peoples

29 Aug 2017 — "Canadian mining have received inside information on Amazon reserve extinction", 26 August 2017 Canadian entrepreneurs knew that RENCA (National Reserve of Copper and Associates),...in the states of Pará and Amapá, would be extinct five months before the official announcement. The entrepreneurs learned of the change during the PDAC event (Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada) held in Toronto in March 2017...After presenting the extinction of RENCA for the Canadians, the government also presented a package of reformulation measures in the Brazilian mineral sector...Canada is a major explorer of mineral resources in Brazil and interest in the country's reserves has grown. According to the Ministry of Mines and Energy, this was the first time that a minister of...[of Mines and Energy]...participated in the event...Today, there are about 30 Canadian companies that exploit the minerals of Brazil...The Brazil-Canada Chamber of Commerce, which brings together representatives of Canadian companies operating in Brazilian territory, reported on the creation of a new Mining Commission two months ago. The decision to extinguish the space was published in the Official Gazette of the Union...[on]...August 23. The press office of President Michel Temer states...that the area is a mineral reserve...[:]..."no environmental reserve in the Amazon was touched by the measure." The Minister of Mines and Energy, Fernando Coelho Filho, said that the decree aims to "inhibit and inhibit illegal activities."...According to the WWF report, the main area of interest for copper and gold exploration is in one of the protected areas, the Biological Reserve of Maicuru...[And that]...there is potential for conflict too in two indigenous reserves that are home to various ethnic communities living in relative isolation...[,]...that a "gold rush in the region could create irreversible damage to these cultures"..."If the government insisted on opening up these areas for mining without discussing environmental safeguards it will have to deal with an international outcry."

Brasil: Investidores e mineradoras canadenses souberam de extinção de reserva na Amazônia antes do anúncio oficial & afirmam que mineração protege a natureza; sociedade civil não soube antes

29 Aug 2017 — “Mineradoras canadenses souberam de extinção de reserva na Amazônia 5 meses antes do anúncio oficial”, 26 agosto 2017   Publicado no Diário Oficial…[de 24 de agosto]...sem alarde, o decreto que determina a extinção da Reserva Nacional do Cobre e Associados (Renca), na Amazônia, surpreendeu muita gente e ganhou manchetes alarmadas no Brasil e nos principais jornais do mundo. Não foi o que ocorreu com investidores e empresas de mineração canadenses. Em março, cinco meses antes do anúncio oficial do governo, o ministro de Minas e Energia, Fernando Coelho Filho, anunciou a empresários do país que a área de preservação amazônica seria extinta, e que sua exploração seria leiloada entre empresas privadas. O fim da Renca foi apresentado pelo governo Temer durante um evento aberto em Toronto, o Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada...O Canadá é um importante explorador de recursos minerais no Brasil e vem ampliando este interesse...Hoje, aproximadamente 30 empresas do país já exploram minérios em território brasileiro...Em junho, dois meses antes da extinção oficial da reserva amazônica, a Câmara de Comércio Brasil-Canadá anunciou uma nova Comissão de Mineração, específica para negócios no Brasil, que reúne representantes destas 30 empresas…[O]...coordenador da comissão canadense defendeu a abertura da área amazônica para pesquisas minerais, disse que a "mineração protege a natureza" e afirmou que "não há uma corrida" para explorar a região da Renca, mas que "acha muito saudável" a disponibilização da região para exploração mineral…[O]...ministro…[de Minas e Energia]...afirmou que a extinção da área de reserva amazônica,...um pouco maior que a...Dinamarca, não terá impactos ambientais…Professor da Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro..., o geógrafo Luiz Jardim pesquisa a relação entre empresas de mineração canadenses e o governo brasileiro…[e discorda]...da tese de que grandes mineradoras podem inibir o garimpo ilegal na região...Bruno Milanez, professor da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora e membro do Comitê Nacional em Defesa dos Territórios Frente à Mineração, que reúne 110 ONGs, sindicatos e movimentos sociais,...[disse que]... não houve qualquer comunicado sobre a Renca para pesquisadores da área ou comunidades...Sobre esta aproximação entre governo e empresários,...afirma..."...Hoje, o primeiro escalão da mineração no governo é formado por pessoas que ocuparam cargos de diretorias em empresas"...

Brésil : 4 millions d’hectares de forêt désormais exploitables par des entreprises minières ; les ONG inquiètes pour l’impact sur les peuples autochtones et l’environnement

25 Aug 2017 — « Le Brésil livre quatre millions d'hectares de forêt amazonienne à l'exploitation minière », 24 août 2017 Le président brésilien a abrogé le statut de réserve naturelle de près de quatre millions d'hectares de forêt amazonienne, qui pourront être exploités à l'avenir par des entreprises minières. Le décret, publié mercredi 23 août au Journal Officiel, met fin à cette réserve créée en 1984...qui réservait l'exploitation minière aux compagnies publiques. Le texte stipule néanmoins que le changement de statut "ne remet pas en cause l'application de la loi concernant la protection de la flore et des territoires autochtones". ...Plusieurs ONG...ont manifesté leur préoccupation au sujet de cette zone située dans les Etats du Para et de l'Amapa (nord), où vivent de nombreuses tribus indiennes... Les autorités locales assurent que le changement de statut de la réserve avait été placé sous contrôle d'organismes de protection de l'environnement. Mais le gouvernement Temer a été régulièrement accusé par des ONG de brader la forêt amazonienne sous pression du puissant lobby de l'agro-business et des intérêts des compagnies minières...

Megaproyectos, comunidades locales y litigio estratégico en 9 países el Sur Global: Nueva publicación de ONG

24 Aug 2017 — “Por un medio ambiente sano que promueva los derechos humanos en el Sur Global” … El presente libro forma parte de un proyecto de largo plazo, emprendido por Dejusticia como parte de su trabajo internacional…en torno a un Taller Global de Investigación-Acción para Defensores Jóvenes de Derechos Humanos…La estructura de este volumen refleja la del taller. La sección central del libro está compuesta por estudios sobre las imbricaciones mutuas entre los derechos humanos y la justicia ambiental en países del Sur Global, de la India a Brasil, de Filipinas a Ecuador, de Indonesia a la Argentina, de Ghana a México. Fiel al espíritu y la estructura del taller anual, la última parte del libro recoge las reflexiones de varios de los instructores que dirigieron las sesiones y trabajaron como mentores de los participantes durante el proceso de escritura… 1. El papel de los financiadores en la promoción de la (in)justicia ambiental. Un estudio de caso del Banco Nacional de Desarrollo Económico y Social y el financiamiento a la Central Hidroeléctrica de Belo Monte [Caio Borges (Brasil)]; 2. Prácticas de relación La Consulta Comunitaria de Buena Fe en Pacto y la historia de un conflicto minero en los bosques nublados de Ecuador [Gabriela León Cobo (Ecuador)]; 3. En contra del “desarrollo” La lucha de los pueblos indígenas de Mindanao por el progreso auto-determinado [Mary Louise Dumas (Filipinas)]; 4. Salvando a Lamu [Sylvia Kithinji (Kenia)]; 5. La resistencia de los apicultores mayas contra la soja transgénica de Monsanto [Karen Hudlet (México)]; 6. Del amor, el privilegio y la autonomía [Arjun Kapoor (India)]; 8. Garrote y Venice Desarrollo, hábitat digno y derechos humanos en la Argentina [Pétalla Brandão Timo (Brasil-Argentina)]; 9. Perdidos en la traducción Hacia un derecho ambiental al conocimiento para todos [Margaretha Quina (Indonesia)]; 10. En las márgenes del río, al margen de las instituciones Los pueblos del Xingu y la hidroeléctrica de Belo Monte, Brasil [Rodrigo Oliveira (Brasil)]; 11. El ambientalismo y la jungla urbana Derechos en conflicto y visiones contradictorias [Darshana Mitra (India)]; 12. Agroquímicos Incertidumbre en un diálogo entre política, derecho y sociedad [Yamile Eugenia Najle (Argentina)]. [Se refiere a: BNDES, Enami-EP; A Brown, TVI Resource Development (parte de TVI Pacific), Monsanto, AngloGold Ashanti, Newmont Ghana Gold Ltd (parte de Newmont); TGLT (parte de PDG), IKPP Serang (parte de Asia Pulp &Paper, part of Sinar Mas Group), Consórcio Norte Energía, Verdol SA

New book: Megaprojects, local communities & strategic litigation in 9 global South countries

24 Aug 2017 — “Fighting the tide. Human rights and environmental justice in the Global South” Introduction Human Rights in the Anthropocene: New Practices and Narratives on Human Rights and the Environment from the Global South (César Rodríguez-Garavito); 1. The Role of Financial Institutions in Promoting Environmental (In)justice: The Brazilian Development Bank and the Belo Monte Dam [Caio Borges (Brazil)]; 2. Relational Practices: Pacto’s Good-Faith Community Referendum and the Story of a Mining Conflict in the Cloud Forests of Ecuador [Gabriela León Cobo (Ecuador)]; 3. Dissent against “Development”: The Mindanao Indigenous Peoples’ Fight for Self-Determined Progress [Mary Louise Dumas (Philippines)];  4. Saving Lamu [Sylvia Kithinji(Kenya)]; 5. Maya Beekeepers Stand Upto Monsanto’s Genetically Modified Soy [Karen Hudlet (Mexico)]; 6. Of Love, Privilege, and Autonomy [Arjun Kapoor(India)]; 7. Stained Gold: A Story of Human Rights Violations in Ghana’s Mining Industry [Richard Ellimah (Ghana)]; 8. Garrote and Venice: Development, Decent Housing, and Human Rights in Argentina [Pétalla Brandão Timo (Brazil/Argentina)]; 9. Lost in Translation: Toward an Environmental Right to Know for All [Margaretha Quina (Indonesia)]; 10. On the Margins of the River, Margins of Institutions: The Xingu People and the Belo Monte Dam [Rodrigo Magalhaes de Oliveira*(Brazil)]; 11. Environmentalism and the Urban Jungle: Conflicting Rights and Contradictory Visions [Darshana Mitra (India)]; 12. Agrochemicals: Uncertainty in a Dialogue between Policy, Law, and Society [Yamile Eugenia Najle (Argentina)]. [Refers to BNDES, Enami-EP; A Brown, TVI Resource Development (part of TVI Pacific), Monsanto, AngloGold Ashanti, Newmont Ghana Gold Ltd (part of Newmont); TGLT (part of PDG), IKPP Serang (part of Asia Pulp &Paper), Consorcio Nórte Energía, Verdol SA].

Brasil: Arquidiocese de Mariana apoia comunidade de Gesteira, atingida pelo desastre do Rio Doce

22 Aug 2017 — "Mensagem da Arquidiocese de Mariana à Comunidade de Gesteira", 5 de agosto de 2017 Desde o rompimento da Barragem de Fundão,...da Samarco Mineração S.A (Vale\BHP Billiton), em Bento Rodrigues, distrito de Mariana-MG, a Arquidiocese de Mariana tem se colocado ao lado dos atingidos e atingidas, motivando sua união e perseverança em sua organização e nas negociações coletivas a fim de terem garantidos seus direitos. Tem apoiado também iniciativas quem visem levar informação às famílias atingidas e ajudá-las a se organizarem na sua luta por justiça. Umas das grandes preocupações da Arquidiocese é a reconstrução das comunidades destruídas. Em Gesteira, município de Barra Longa, as nove famílias que perderam suas casas e os moradores do Mutirão, que se localiza fora das margens do rio Gualaxo do Norte, aguardam ansiosamente a reconstrução da comunidade...[N]ão perderam apenas suas casas e áreas de produção de alimentos à margem do rio, mas também importantes espaços coletivos, como a escola, o campo de futebol e a igreja Nossa Senhora da Conceição. A Arquidiocese de Mariana...manifesta seu apoio ao processo de organização da população local que vem sendo conduzido pelo Movimento dos Atingidos por Barragens (MAB)... Repelimos toda iniciativa que divide a comunidade, multiplica a desinformação e, sobretudo, que tente vencer as famílias pelo cansaço, levando-as à desistência de morar nas novas casas, optando pela indenização individual. Garantir a terra e a moradia, caminho escolhido pela comunidade, é a melhor opção para assegurar os direitos...Pe. Geraldo Martins Dias Coordenador Arquidiocesano de Pastoral